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Woodturning is the process of shaping wood using a lathe. Woodturning is used to create round items like bowls, spindles, table legs, wooden baseball bats and others.
Sunken joints are slight depressions at the glue lines in a finished panel. Sunken joints result from the wood around the joint expanding when it comes in contact with the moisture from adhesive. To avoid sunken joints, wait for the wood swelling to go down before planing or sanding.
Stepped joints occur when two adjacent laminates change dimension differently because of grain orientation and/or moisture. The adhesive cannot resist this change and the laminates slightly shift. The joint will appear “stepped”.
Snipe is the gouging or depression of a board as a result of running it through a planer. Snipe can occur at either end of the board when it enters the planer's out-feed roller or in-feed roller. On a joiner, snipe can occur due to improper table alignment and improper feeding.
Most often used in commercial application, a radio frequency is used to speed the cure rate of water-based adhesives by removing the moisture or water from the glue. It is also used in some cases for kiln drying of lumber.
PVA's have been around since the 1940s, and are commonly known as white glues. Gorilla Wood Glue is a cross-linked PVA. White glues are not cross-linked, meaning that the polymers are not joined together as a web. This cross-linking gives the glue enhanced strength, as well as better heat and moisture-resistance than white glue.
Generally, open grain woods are softer woods and more porous. Closed grain woods are harder woods and less porous.
A moisture meter measures the moisture content of wood. Too dry of wood could result in too much wood glue being absorbed into the wood and starving the joint. Too much moisture in the wood can inhibit bonding. Moisture content is important to consider to avoid swings in shrinkage or expansion stresses post bonding. When using adhesives, wood with a moisture content of 4-7% for hardwoods and 6-8% for softwoods is recommended.
A technique for applying glue, injecting glue is most often used in repair and restoration. Glue is injected into small crack or loose joints with the use of a small glue syringe.
Finger joints are a joinery technique, often used in commercial processing of softwoods to join ends and avoid the inherent difficulties of end joining. It is also a great way for producers to reduce waste or scrap.
A fiberized surface occurs when wood has been improperly sanded against the grain, by using rough or dull planer blades or by using abrasives that are too coarse. The result is a surface that is rough or fuzzy.
The process of gluing boards end to end. This technique is used infrequently, since the end grains of boards present additional difficulties for successful bonding and a seamless appearance. In addition, the length of boards is less often an issue, as trees grow much taller than wider.
The process of gluing boards edge to end.
The process of gluing boards edge to edge to create a wider panel than can be achieved with one board is referred to as edge-to-edge gluing.
A dovetail joint is a joining technique. A popular solution for right angle applications, such as drawer corners, a dovetail joint is a series of pins cut to extend from the end of one board. The pin cuts lock into a series of tails cut into the end of another board. The pins and tails have a trapezoidal shape. Once glued, no mechanical fasteners are required; the joint is permanent.
Checking is the splitting and cracking that occurs as wood dries. Checking can be avoided by regulating the environment in which the wood is dried to slow down the rate of speed in which moisture evaporates.
Checkering is a decorative technique in which a criss-cross pattern is applied to wood. It is used most often on gunstocks, for better grip.
Biscuits are support mechanisms used in joining wood. They are created in various sizes for different applications, and are usually used with a power tool called a plate joiner or biscuit cutter.
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